Revolutions are varied. Beyond the traditional political revolutions, revolutions of the earth, social revolutions, industrial revolutions, and scientific revolutions are each a part of the conceptual schema. While each revolution is “enormously varied,” they share fundamental characteristics. Revolutions must result in a substantial change from the status quo and be intentional change. The status quo signifies whatever thought, governing body, or philosophy holds power over society. The status quo is reality at the time. Revolutions need not be moral; a revolution does not need to seek “good.”

Jack Goldstone, Revolutions: A Very Short Introduction, (Oxford University Press, 2014), 2.

Lewis H. Lapham, Lapham’s Quarterly: Revolution, (New York: 2014).

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